Hezbollah in Libanon – achtergrond

Laatste update 11-6-2009

 

  1. Hezbollah en Libanon

  2. Citaten van Hezbollah over Israël en Joden

  3. The Hizballah Program

Verder lezen:


Hezbollah (van Hizbu-Allah, Arabisch voor “Partij van God”) is een extremistische sjiïtische moslim organisatie in Libanon, die rond 1982 werd opgericht met steun van Iran om het Israëlische invasieleger te verdrijven uit Libanon, maar ook om de Joodse staat zelf te bestrijden, en om de sjiïtische revolutie van Iran (1979) te exporteren naar Libanon.

Libanon

Libanon, eeuwenlang onderdeel van het Ottomaanse Rijk en na 1917 een Frans mandaatgebied, werd in 1943 een onafhankelijke staat. De bevolking van 3,8 miljoen mensen is verdeeld over 18 verschillende (christelijke en islamitische) religieuze groepen, volgens welke het politieke systeem is ingedeeld. Elf religieuze groeperingen hebben elk een vastgesteld aantal parlementszetels. Op basis van de volkstelling van 1932 waren 54 van de 99 zetels bestemd voor christelijke parlementariërs, maar naarmate vooral de sjiitsche bevolkingsgroep groeide en de christenen in de minderheid kwamen, eiste men een nieuwe zetelverdeling. Een opstand van de moslims in 1958, waarbij een andere zetelverdeling werd geëist, werd met geweld onderdrukt. Nieuwe gewelddadigheden begonnen in 1973 tussen het Libanese leger en Palestijnse milities van de PLO die in Libanon hun basis hadden opgebouwd, maar liepen uit op gevechten tussen christelijke en islamitische groepen en ontaardden in 1975 in de Libanese burgeroorlog. Achtereenvolgens mengden zich in deze oorlog in 1976 Syrische troepen, in 1977 VN-troepen en in 1982 het Israëlische leger. In 1982 ook stuurde de Iraanse regering van Ayatollah Chomeini 1.500 ‘instructeurs’ van haar Revolutionaire Garde naar Libanon om de sjiitische beweging daar te trainen in de jihad. Hieruit is de Hezbollah voortgekomen.

Hezbollah tegen Israël

Haar primaire doel, de verdrijving van het Israëlische leger uit zuid-Libanon, werd bereikt met de Israëlische terugtrekking in 2000 (door Hezbollah en veel andere Arabieren als een grote overwinning op de “Zionistische vijand” gezien), maar daarmee eindigden de vijandigheden niet. Hezbollah claimde nadien nog onder meer de Sheba Farms, die bij de door Israël bezette en geannexeerde Golan Hoogvlakte horen. Volgens de VN behoren de Sheba Farms en de Golan aan Syrië. Verder eiste Hezbollah de vrijlating van Palestijnse en enkele Libanese (Hezbollah) gevangenen in Israëlische gevangenissen, en uiteindelijk streeft men naar vernietiging van de Joodse staat. Na de Israëlische terugtrekking in 2000 had Hezbollah meer dan tienduizend rakketten (geleverd door Iran via Syrië) aan de grens opgesteld, en meermaals geprobeerd Israëlische soldaten te ontvoeren om deze tegen Palestijnse gevangenen uit te ruilen. In 2004 slaagde Hezbollah erin om meer dan 400 Libanese en Palestijnse gevangenen vrij te krijgen in ruil voor drie dode Israëli’s en een ontvoerde Joodse zakenman. De successen van Hezbollah tegen het machtige Israëlische leger maakten haar populair onder de (overwegend soenitische) Palestijnen en vormden mede de inspiratie voor de eerste en tweede intifada in de Palestijnse gebieden.

Gewapende politiek partij

Hezbollah streeft verder naar het vestigen van een islamitische republiek in Libanon, maar na de jarenlange burgeroorlog kwam men tot de conclusie dat dit niet met geweld te bereiken was. Hezbollah deed mee aan het Libanese vredesproces dat in 1989-1990 een einde maakte aan de burgeroorlog, en werd een politieke partij die vanaf 1992 in het Libanese parlement (sinds 2005 met 23 van de 128 zetels) vertegenwoordigd is, en momenteel met 2 ministers in de regering zit. Volgens het vredesakkoord uit 1990 hoefde zij als enige partij haar milities niet te ontwapenen omdat ze tegen de Israëlische bezetting van zuid-Libanon vochten. Echter ook na de Israëlische terugtrekking in 2000 bleef Hezbollah weigeren zich te ontwapenen, zoals o.a. door de VN sinds 2004 wordt geëist (Veiligheidsraad resoluties 1559 en 1680). De Libanese staat is te zwak om dit af te dwingen, en bovendien geniet Hezbollah ook onder veel niet-sjiiten respect als verzetsbeweging tegen Israël, en worden de beweging en haar leider Nasrallah beschermd door de Libanese regering.

Machtsbasis

Hezbollah vormt een ‘staat binnen een staat’ in Libanon. Zij geniet de steun van naar schatting de helft van de Libanese sjiïten, die circa 40% van de bevolking uitmaken. Haar aanhangers wonen voornamelijk in de Bekaa-vallei, in wijken in zuid-Beiroet en in zuid-Libanon. Behalve door het ‘verjagen’ van Israël heeft ze sympathie gewonnen bij de wederopbouw na de burgeroorlog, waarin zij met het opzetten van scholen, ziekenhuizen en sociale voorzieningen in zuid-Libanon het van oudsher arme en achtergestelde sjiïtische bevolkingsdeel betere levensomstandigheden boodt. Ze beschikt verder over eigen banken en media-instellingen, waaronder televisiestation Al-Manar (in Europa goeddeels verboden vanwege haatzaaierij en antisemitisme). Hezbollah wordt grotendeels gefinancierd en van wapens en advies voorzien door Syrië en Iran.

Terrorisme

Hezbollah is tevens een terroristische organisatie, die in het Midden-Oosten het concept van zelfmoordaanslagen introduceerde. Ze wordt verantwoordelijk gehouden voor bomaanslagen in de jaren tachtig op onder andere de Amerikaanse ambassade en legerbasis in Beiroet, waarbij honderden doden vielen, de ontvoering van Amerikanen en andere westerlingen en een vliegtuigkaping (TWA-vlucht 847). Ook de bomaanslagen op twee Joodse instellingen in Buenos Aires in 1992 en 1994 worden aan Hezbollah toegeschreven. Naast directe aanvallen op Israëlische militairen en burgerdoelen in de grensstreek, ondersteunt Hezbollah ook Palestijnse groepen zoals de Islamitische Jihad en Hamas in de bezette gebieden bij het plegen van aanslagen tegen Israël, onder meer middels wapensmokkel naar de Gazastrook.

Ander terroristisch geweld, waaronder de aanslagen op 11 september 2001 in de VS, zijn door Hezbollah veroordeeld. Over de omvang van de gewapende arm van Hezbollah bestaat onduidelijkheid: sommige bronnen op internet spreken van ‘honderden’, andere van ’20.000′ gewapende strijders. Een realistische schatting zal 3 tot 5 duizend zijn.

Syrië

Vanaf de burgeroorlog had Syrië troepen in Libanon gestationeerd en drukte zij een zwaar stempel op de Libanese politiek. Feitelijk heeft het Syrische regime nooit haar claim op een “Groot-Syrië”, inclusief Libanon (maar ook Israël/Palestina en Jordanië), opgegeven, en heeft zij bijvoorbeeld nooit formeel haar grenzen met Libanon vastgelegd. Na de moord op de populaire, maar anti-Syrische kandidaat-premier Rafik Hariri in 2005, waarbij Syrië volgens een VN-onderzoek betrokken zou zijn geweest, ontstonden massale protesten tegen de Syrische invloed in Libanon, en zag Syrië zich genoodzaakt haar militairen terug te trekken. Via Hezbollah, alsmede via achtergebleven Syrische geheime agenten, probeert Syrie om indirect nog invloed in Libanon uit te oefenen. De vorige Libanese president Lahoud was pro-Syrisch en steunde Hezbollah. De huidige president Michel Suleiman geldt als meer neutraal. In augustus 2008 knoopte Syrië voor het eerst diplomatieke betrekkingen aan met Libanon en werd afgesproken om ambassadeurs uit te wisselen.

Libanon en Hezbollah 2005-2009

Na het vertrek van de Syrische troepen kwam een Nationale Dialoog over de toekomst van het land op gang, waarbij ook de gewapende arm van Hezbollah ter discussie stond, en de druk op Hezbollah om te ontwapenen toenam. Het uitlokken van vijandigheden met Israël in juli 2006, die uitmonde in de Tweede Libanon Oorlog* had waarschijnlijk tot doel om de legitimiteit van Hezbollah als (para)militaire organisatie te herstellen, en zal met goedkeuring en wellicht zelfs in opdracht van Syrië en Iran zijn gebeurd. (* Zie ook: De gevolgen van de Libanon oorlog )

De VN Veiligheidsraad resolutie 1701 waarmee de oorlog eindigde, bepaalde onder meer dat Hezbollah zich moest terugtrekken tot ten noorden van de Litani rivier en ontwapend moest worden, en wapensmokkel vanuit met name Syrië gestopt moest worden. Het Libanese leger werd nu ook in het zuiden van Libanon gestationeerd, samen met een versterkte VN vredesmacht, maar geen van beide waagde zich eraan Hezbollah daadwerkelijk weg te sturen of te ontwapenen, en ook de wapensmokkel werd nauwelijks effectief gestopt. Hezbollah heeft zich nadien herbewapend en is sterker dan voorheen. Volgens een VN rapport van begin 2008 beschikt Hezbollah weer over 10.000 lange-afstands raketten en 20.000 korte-afstands projektielen. Voorzichtige maatregelen van de Libanese regering in het voorjaar van 2008 om de macht van Hezbollah in te perken leidden in mei tot een gewapende opstand in Beiroet en Tripoli, waarbij Hezbollah dreigde de macht over te nemen. Dit werd afgewend door een compromis te sluiten dat Hezbollah met haar bondgenoten feitelijk een vetorecht gaf over regeringsbesluiten. Hezbollah kan zo voorkomen dat de VN resoluties worden uitgevoerd en haar macht wordt ingeperkt.

De 2 ontvoerde Israëlische soldaten die de aanleiding vormden voor de oorlog, waren al kort daarna gedood, maar dit werd pas duidelijk toen hun lichamen in juli 2008 werden geruild voor enkele Libanese terroristen en de lichamen van in gevechten omgekomen Palestijnse en Libanese strijders. Met name de vrijlating van Samir Kuntar, een Libanese Druus die in 1979 een Israëlisch gezin overviel en een levenslange gevangenisstraf wegens moord uitzat, was zeer controversieel in Israël. In Libanon werd Kuntar als een held binnengehaald. Tijdens de Gaza Oorlog probeerden cellen van Hezbollah Iraanse wapens via Egypte de Gazastrook binnen te smokkelen, en riep Nasrallah de Egyptenaren op om het regiem van Moebarak omver te werpen.
Met de steun van Iran en Syrië blijft Hezbollah een bedreiging voor zowel Israël als voor de Libanese democratie en maatschappij. Het is een kwestie van tijd voor er een nieuw conflict losbarst.

Op 7 juni 2009 werden parlementsverkiezingen gehouden in Libanon. Hezbollah zette in op het invoeren van proportionele vertegenwoordiging ipv. het huidige systeem van een vast aantal vertegenwoordigers per religieuze stroming. Daarmee zouden de moslims de parlementaire meerderheid in het land krijgen. De uitslag van de verkiezingen leverden Hezbollah en haar bondgenoten echter geen winst op.


Citaten van Hezbollah over Israël en Joden

In 1985 publiceerde Hezbollah haar programma, waarin zij over Israël het volgende vermeld:

We see in Israel the vanguard of the United States in our Islamic world. It is the hated enemy that must be fought until the hated ones get what they deserve. This enemy is the greatest danger to our future generations and to the destiny of our lands, particularly as it glorifies the ideas of settlement and expansion, initiated in Palestine, and yearning outward to the extension of the Great Israel, from the Euphrates to the Nile.

Our primary assumption in our fight against Israel states that the Zionist entity is aggressive from its inception, and built on lands wrested from their owners, at the expense of the rights of the Muslim people. Therefore our struggle will end only when this entity is obliterated. We recognize no treaty with it, no cease fire, and no peace agreements, whether separate or consolidated.

We vigorously condemn all plans for negotiation with Israel, and regard all negotiators as enemies, for the reason that such negotiation is nothing but the recognition of the legitimacy of the Zionist occupation of Palestine. Therefore we oppose and reject the Camp David Agreements, the proposals of King Fahd, the Fez and Reagan plan, Brezhnev’s and the French-Egyptian proposals, and all other programs that include the recognition (even the implied recognition) of the Zionist entity.

Zie voor het volledige programma van Hezbollah (Engelstalig) onderaan dit artikel.

Enkele latere citaten van Hezbollah over Israël en Joden:

“It is an open war until the elimination of Israel and until the death of the last Jew on earth.” (Hezbollah statement, 1992

“The Jews invented the legend of the Nazi atrocities… Anyone who reads the Qur’an and the holy writings of the monotheistic religions sees what they did to the prophets, and what acts of madness and slaughter the Jews carried out throughout history… Anyone who reads these texts cannot think of co-existence with them, of peace with them, or about accepting their presence, not only in Palestine of 1948 but even in a small village in Palestine, because they are a cancer which is liable to spread again at any moment.” (April 9, 2000)

“Throughout history, the Jews have been Allah’s most cowardly and greedy creatures. If you search the entire face of the Earth, you will find no one more miserly than the Jews, or more greedy.” (Al Manar, Sept. 28, 2001)

Zie ook op CAMERA: Hassan Nasrallah: In His Own Words.

 


The Hizballah Program

The Jerusalem Quarterly, number Forty-Eight, Fall 1988

Source 

Note – This is a slightly abridged translation of “Nass al-Risala al-Maftuha allati wajahaha Hizballah ila-l-Mustad’afin fi Lubnan wa-l-Alam”, published February 16, 1985 in al-Safir (Beirut), and also in a separate brochure. It carries the unmistakable imprint of Sheikh Muhammad Hussein Fadlallah, the Hizballah mentor, and is inspired by his book Ma’maal-Quwma fi-l-Islam (Beirut 1979). See also his article in al-Muntalak (Beirut), October 1986.

Our Identity

We are often asked: Who are we, the Hizballah, and what is our identity? We are the sons of the umma (Muslim community) – the party of God (Hizb Allah) the vanguard of which was made victorious by God in Iran. There the vanguard succeeded to lay down the bases of a Muslim state which plays a central role in the world. We obey the orders of one leader, wise and just, that of our tutor and faqih (jurist) who fulfills all the necessary conditions: Ruhollah Musawi Khomeini. God save him!

By virtue of the above, we do not constitute an organized and closed party in Lebanon. nor are we a tight political cadre. We are an umma linked to the Muslims of the whole world by the solid doctrinal and religious connection of Islam, whose message God wanted to be fulfilled by the Seal of the Prophets, i.e., Muhammad. This is why whatever touches or strikes the Muslims in Afghanistan, Iraq, the Philippines and elsewhere reverberates throughout the whole Muslim umma of which we are an integral part. Our behavior is dictated to us by legal principles laid down by the light of an overall political conception defined by the leading jurist (wilayat al-faqih). 

As for our culture, it is based on the Holy Koran, the Sunna and the legal rulings of the faqih who is our source of imitation (marja’ al-taqlid). Our culture is crystal clear. It is not complicated and is accessible to all. 

No one can imagine the importance of our military potential as our military apparatus is not separate from our overall social fabric. Each of us is a fighting soldier. And when it becomes necessary to carry out the Holy War, each of us takes up his assignment in the fight in accordance with the injunctions of the Law, and that in the framework of the mission carried out under the tutelage of the Commanding Jurist.

Our Fight

The US has tried, through its local agents, to persuade the people that those who crushed their arrogance in Lebanon and frustrated their conspiracy against the oppressed (mustad’afin) were nothing but a bunch of fanatic terrorists whose sole aim is to dynamite bars and destroy slot machines. Such suggestions cannot and will not mislead our umma, for the whole world knows that whoever wishes to oppose the US, that arrogant superpower, cannot indulge in marginal acts which may make it deviate from its major objective. We combat abomination and we shall tear out its very roots, its primary roots, which are the US. All attempts made to drive us into marginal actions will fail, especially as our determination to fight the US is solid.

We declare openly and loudly that we are an umma which fears God only and is by no means ready to tolerate injustice, aggression and humiliation. America, its Atlantic Pact allies, and the Zionist entity in the holy land of Palestine, attacked us and continue to do so without respite. Their aim is to make us eat dust continually. This is why we are, more and more, in a state of permanent alert in order to repel aggression and defend our religion, our existence, our dignity. They invaded our country, destroyed our villages, slit the throats of our children, violated our sanctuaries and appointed masters over our people who committed the worst massacres against our umma. They do not cease to give support to these allies of Israel, and do not enable us to decide our future according to our own wishes.

In a single night the Israelis and the Phalangists executed thousands of our sons, women and children in Sabra and Shatilla. No international organization protested or denounced this ferocious massacre in an effective manner, a massacre perpetrated with the tacit accord of America’s European allies, which had retreated a few days, maybe even a few hours earlier, from the Palestinian camps. The Lebanese defeatists accepted putting the camps under the protection of that crafty fox, the US envoy Philip Habib.

We have no alternative but to confront aggression by sacrifice. The coordination between the Phalangists and Israel continues and develops. A hundred thousand victims – this is the approximate balance sheet of crimes committed by them and by the US against us. Almost half a million Muslims were forced to leave their homes. Their quarters were virtually totally destroyed in Nab’a, my own Beirut suburb, as well as in Burj Hammud, Dekonaneh, Tel Zaatar, Sinbay, Ghawarina and Jubeil – all in areas controlled today by the ‘Lebanese Forces’,. The Zionist occupation then launched its usurpatory invasion of Lebanon in full and open collusion with the Phalanges. The latter condemned all attempts to resist the invading forces. They participated in the implementation of certain Israeli plans in order to accomplish its Lebanese dream and acceded to all Israeli requests in order to gain power.

And this is, in fact, what happened. Bashir Jumayyil, that butcher, seized power with the help also of OPEC countries and the Jumayyil family. Bashir tried to improve his ugly image by joining the six-member Committee of Public Safety presided over by former President Elias Sarkis, which was nothing but an American-Israeli bridge borrowed by the Phalangists in order to control the oppressed. Our people could not tolerate humiliation any more. It destroyed the oppressors, the invaders and their lackeys. But the US persisted in its folly and installed Amin Jumayyil to replace his brother. Some of his first so called achievements were to destroy the homes of refugees and other displaced persons, attack mosques, and order the army to bombard the southern suburbs of Beirut, where the oppressed people resided. He invited European troops to help him against us and signed the May 17th, [1984] accord with Israel making Lebanon an American protectorate.

Our people could not bear any more treachery. It decided to oppose infidelity – be it French, American or Israeli – by striking at their headquarters and launching a veritable war of resistance against the Occupation forces. Finally, the enemy had to decide to retreat by stages. 

Our Objectives

Let us put it truthfully: the sons of Hezbollah know who are their major enemies in the Middle East – the Phalanges, Israel, France and the US. The sons of our umma are now in a state of growing confrontation with them, and will remain so until the realization of the following three objectives:

(a) to expel the Americans. the French and their allies definitely from Lebanon, putting an end to any colonialist entity on our land;

(b) to submit the Phalanges to a just power and bring them all to justice for the crimes they have perpetrated against Muslims and Christians;

(c) to permit all the sons of our people to determine their future and to choose in all the liberty the form of government they desire. We call upon all of them to pick the option of Islamic government which, alone, is capable of guaranteeing justice and liberty for all. Only an Islamic regime can stop any further tentative attempts of imperialistic infiltration into our country.

These are Lebanon’s objectives; those are its enemies. As for our friends, they are all the world’s oppressed peoples. Our friends are also those who combat our enemies and who defend us from their evil. Towards these friends, individuals as well as organizations, we turn and say:

Friends, wherever you are in Lebanon… we are in agreement with you on the great and necessary objectives: destroying American hegemony in our land; putting an end to the burdensome Israeli Occupation; beating back all the Phalangists’ attempts to monopolize power and administration.

Even though we have, friends, quite different viewpoints as to the means of the struggle, on the levels upon which it must be carried out, we should surmount these tiny divergencies and consolidate cooperation between us in view of the grand design. We are an umma which adheres to the message of Islam. We want all the oppressed to be able to study the divine message in order to bring justice, peace and tranquillity to the world. This is why we don’t want to impose Islam upon anybody, as much as we that others impose upon us their convictions and their political systems. We don’t want Islam to reign in Lebanon by force as is the case with the Maronites today. This is the minimum that we can accept in order to be able to accede by legal means to realize our ambitions, to save Lebanon from its dependence upon East and West, to put an end to foreign occupation and to adopt a regime freely wanted by the people of Lebanon.

This is our perception of the present state of affairs. This is the Lebanon we envision. In the light of our conceptions, our opposition to the present system is the function of two factors; (1) the present regime is the product of an arrogance so unjust that no reform or modification can remedy it. It should be changed radically, and (2) World Imperialism which is hostile to Islam.

We consider that all opposition in Lebanon voiced in the name of reform can only profit, ultimately, the present system. All such opposition which operates within the framework of the conservation and safeguarding of the present constitution without demanding changes at the level of the very foundation of the regime is, hence, an opposition of pure formality which cannot satisfy the interests of the oppressed masses. Likewise, any opposition which confronts the present regime but within the limits fixed by it, is an illusory opposition which renders a great service to the Jumayyil system. Moreover, we cannot be concerned by any proposition of political reform which accepts the rotten system actually in effect. We could not care less about the creation of this or that governmental coalition or about the participation of this or that political personality in some ministerial post, which is but a part of this unjust regime.

The politics followed by the chiefs of political Maronism through the ‘Lebanese Front’ and the ‘Lebanese Forces’ cannot guarantee peace and tranquillity for the Christians of Lebanon, whereas it is predicated upon ‘asabiyya (narrow-minded particularism), on confessional privileges and on the alliance with colonialism. The Lebanese crisis has proven that confessional privileges are one of the principal causes of the great explosion which ravaged the country. It also proved that outside help was of no use to the Christians of Lebanon, just when they need it most. The bell tolled for the fanatic Christians to rid themselves of denominational allegiance and of illusion deriving from the monopolization of privileges to the detriment of other communities. The Christians should answer the appeal from heaven and have recourse to reason instead of arms, to persuasion instead of confessionalism.

To the Christians

If you, Christians, cannot tolerate that Muslims share with you certain domains of government, Allah has also made it intolerable for Muslims to participate in an unjust regime, unjust for you and for us, in a regime which is not predicated upon the prescriptions (ahkam) of religion and upon the basis of the Law (the Shari’a) as laid down by Muhammad, the Seal of the Prophets. If you search for justice, who is more just than Allah? It is He who sent down from the sky the message of Islam through his successive prophets in order that they judge the people and give everyone his rights. If you were deceived and misled into believing that we anticipate vengeance against you – your fears are unjustified. For those of you who are peaceful, continue to live in our midst without anybody even thinking to trouble you.

We don’t wish you evil. We call upon you to embrace Islam so that you can be happy in this world and the next. If you refuse to adhere to Islam, maintain your ties with the Muslims and don’t take part in any activity against them. Free yourselves from the consequences of hateful confessionalism. Banish from your hearts all fanaticism and parochialism. Open your hearts to our Call (da’wa) which we address to you. Open yourselves up to Islam where you’ll find salvation and happiness upon earth and in the hereafter. We extend this invitation also to all the oppressed among the non-Muslims. As for those who belong to Islam only formally, we exhort them to adhere to Islam in religious practice and to renounce all fanaticisms which are rejected by our religion.

World Scene

We reject both the USSR and the US, both Capitalism and Communism, for both are incapable of laying the foundations for a just society.

With special vehemence we reject UNIFIL as they were sent by world arrogance to occupy areas evacuated by Israel and serve for the latter as a buffer zone. They should be treated much like the Zionists. All should know that the goals of the Phalangists regime do not carry any weight with the Combatants of the Holy War, i.e., the Islamic resistance. This is the quagmire which awaits all foreign intervention. 

There, then, are our conceptions and our objectives which serve as our basis and inspire our march. Those who accept them should know that all rights belong to Allah and He bestows them. Those who reject them, we’ll be patient with them, till Allah decides between us and the people of injustice. 

The Necessity for the Destruction of Israel (See ICT Note)

We see in Israel the vanguard of the United States in our Islamic world. It is the hated enemy that must be fought until the hated ones get what they deserve. This enemy is the greatest danger to our future generations and to the destiny of our lands, particularly as it glorifies the ideas of settlement and expansion, initiated in Palestine, and yearning outward to the extension of the Great Israel, from the Euphrates to the Nile.

Our primary assumption in our fight against Israel states that the Zionist entity is aggressive from its inception, and built on lands wrested from their owners, at the expense of the rights of the Muslim people. Therefore our struggle will end only when this entity is obliterated. We recognize no treaty with it, no cease fire, and no peace agreements, whether separate or consolidated.

We vigorously condemn all plans for negotiation with Israel, and regard all negotiators as enemies, for the reason that such negotiation is nothing but the recognition of the legitimacy of the Zionist occupation of Palestine. Therefore we oppose and reject the Camp David Agreements, the proposals of King Fahd, the Fez and Reagan plan, Brezhnev’s and the French-Egyptian proposals, and all other programs that include the recognition (even the implied recognition) of the Zionist entity.

ICT note: This paragraph did not appear in the original translation published by the Jerusalem Quarterly. It is possible that this omission is due to the fact that the source (al-Safir) for the translation did not include this text, which appears in the original Hizballah Program. The original Program was published on 16 February 1985. The organization’s spokesman, Sheikh Ibrahim al-Amin read the Program at the al-Ouzai Mosque in west Beirut and afterwards it was published as an open letter “to all the Opressed in Lebanon and the World”. It should be emphasised that none of Hizballah’s web sites have published the full text of the organization’s program, and they prefer to publish the 1996 electoral program which was intended for the specific propoganda campaign before the Lebanese Parliamentary elections in 1996.


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